Effect Evaluation of Applying Ultra low‘capacity Spraying Technology by Plant’protection Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Control Rice Sheath Blight
Abstract：Field trials in Taihe county and Nanchang county of Jiangxi province during 2016—2017 were carried out to evalu．ate the efficiency of applying ultra low capacity spraying technology by plant’’protection unmanned aerial vehicle to control rice sheath blight．The results showed that the control efect of applying ultra—low—capacity spraying technology by plant—protection uu·
manned aerial vehicle against rice sheath blight was positively correlated with the dosage of the same fungicide．In the test site of Taihe county，under the condition of uniformly applying 420 g／hm 25％ Epoxiconazole suspending agent，applying 15．0 L／hm liquid medicine by unmanned aerial vehicle had the highest control efect(84．20％)，which was significantly higher than the control efect(81．83％)of applying 450．0 L／hm liquid medicine by artificial electric sprayer．In the test site of Nanchang county，under the condition of uniform ly applying 375 g／hm 40％ Prochloraz copper salt·Epoxiconazole suspending agent，the control efect of applying 7．5—15．0 L／hm liquid medicine by unmanned aerial vehicle was 53．73％ 一69．44％ ，which was significantly lower than the control effect(86．72％)of applying 450．0 L／hm liquid medicine by artificial electric sprayer．
Rice sheath blight is an important rice disease that is common worldwide.
one, can infect rice sheaths and leaves to cause dead spots, also infect the neck,Stems and leaves, reducing the seed setting rate of rice, increasing the rate of grain, grain weight Declining, seriously affecting the yield and quality of rice, the field of disease is generally reduced Production is 10% to 30%, and the yield loss can reach 50% in severe cases [1-2]. in recent years Come, due to the large-scale planting of susceptible varieties, the increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilizer Addition and changes in global climatic conditions, rice sheath blight Increased year by year, especially in southern Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, etc. Ground, rice sheath blight has been ranked first in the three major diseases of rice. Head Before, the most effective and widespread method for controlling rice sheath blight is still to make Use chemicals.
The long-term and large-scale use of chemical pesticides has caused high
Pay attention to it. At present, pesticide reduction and efficiency have become the national development war slightly. In theory, there are three ways to reduce pesticides: one is non-chemical defense. Treatment technology, mainly including biological control technology, sexual attractant technology and cultivation Prevention and control technology; second, the development of high-efficiency, low-toxic, low-residue pesticides; It is the precise application technology of pesticides, and the ultra-low volume spray method is a pesticide. Trends in the use of technology, while drones are ultra-low-capacity sprays The most ideal agricultural aircraft machinery for technical implementation. Plant protection The advantage of the combination of machine and ultra-low volume spray is that the amount of pesticide is small, anti- The treatment effect is good and the pollution to the environment is light. In order to explore unmanned plant protection aircraft The effect of pesticide application on rice sheath blight, we are in 2016, 2017 Plant protection drones were super low in Yujiang County and Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province. Field trial demonstration of capacity spraying technology to control rice sheath blight, now The results of the test demonstration are reported below.
1 Materials and methods
1.1 Test materials
The test agent is a 25% epoxiconazole suspension (BASF plant protection)
Co., Ltd. production), 40% copper copper epoxiconazole suspension agent (Jiangsu Production of Huifeng Agrochemical Co., Ltd., trade name: FumanmeiTM).
The rice varieties tested were Fenghuazhan and Jiayu 948. The object of prevention and treatment is Rice sheath blight. Test using plant protection equipment: XYX-801 six-rotor plant protection
Man-machine (produced by Shenzhen Dingtian High-Tech Co., Ltd.); Minghui Brand 3WBD-16 knapsack electric sprayer, working pressure is 0.2~ 0.4 MPa, Zhejiang Taizhou Luqiao Minghui Electric Sprayer Co., Ltd.
1.2 Demonstration test method
There are 2 points in this demonstration experiment, which are the east of Guanchao Town, Taihe County.
Village test site, test site in Qikou Township, Nanchang County. Planting of 2 test points
The management measures are consistent with local agricultural production and meet the test requirements.
1.2.1 There are 5 treatments in Taihe County test sites, namely: no one
Machine application (A1), using 25% epoxiconazole suspension 420 g / hm, water
The amount is 7.50 L/hm; the drone is applied (A2), suspended with 25% epoxiconazole
Agent 420 g / hm, water consumption l1.25 L / hm; drone application
(A3), using 25% epoxiconazole suspension 420 g / hm, water consumption 15.00
L/hm; artificial spraying (A4) with 25% epoxiconazole suspension 420 g/
Hm, water consumption 450 L / hm; blank as a control (CK1). in
On September 5, 2016, the application of rice at the end of the booting stage was once in 2016.
On September 20, the rice was applied at the same stage, and the application was carried out twice. Test
The rice variety is Fenghuazhan.
1.2.2 There are 5 treatments in the test site of Nanchang County, namely: no one
Machine application (BI) with 40% copper copper epoxiconazole suspension 375 g /
Hm, water consumption 7.50 lJhm; drone application (B2), with 40% microphone
Copper flucyclazole suspension 375 g / hm, water consumption 11.25 L / hm;
UAV application (B3) with 40% copper copper epoxiconazole suspension 375
g / hm, water consumption l5. O0 L/hm; manual spraying (B4) with 40%
Copper epoxiconazole suspension 375 g / hm, water consumption 450 L / hm;
Use blank as a control (CK2). Rice booting on June 7, 2017
Applying at the end of the period, applying the pesticide at the rice harvesting stage on June 19, 2017
1 time, a total of 2 times. The rice variety tested was Jiayu 948.
1.3 Survey and measurement methods
1.3.1 Meteorological data The first application day of Taihe County experimental field (September 5, 2016) The weather is cloudy with light rain, temperature 24.0-31.0 cI: average temperature 27.5 ° C, relative humidity 81%, 12 h after application Light rain; the second application day (September 20), the weather is cloudy and sunny, the temperature 19.0～27.0’t2, average temperature 23.0°C, relative humidity 72%, application
It rained 7 days after the drug. The first application day of Nanchang County experimental field (June 7, 2017) The weather is cloudy with a temperature of 22.0 to 28.0 ° C, flat The average temperature is 25.0 ° C, the relative humidity is 75%, the breeze, 48 h after application Rain; the second application on June 19, the day turned cloudy, the temperature
24.0～27.0 oC, air humidity 85%; Nanchang County rainy day in late June
More, it is conducive to the occurrence of rice sheath blight.
1.3.2 Survey method, time and frequency
220.127.116.11 Time and number of investigations were adjusted 10 days after the second application Check the effectiveness of the first time, the investigation time of the Taihe County test site is 2016 On September 30, the survey time of Nanchang County test site was 2017 7 Month 29th.
18.104.22.168 Investigation method based on the damage of rice sheath and leaf
The degree of grading is graded, and the plant is used as a unit. The diagonal line is sampled at 5 points. Law, each survey is connected to 5 clusters, a total of 25 clusters, and the total number of plants and the number of diseased plants are recorded. And the number of stages. The grading standards are as follows: level 0, the whole plant has no disease; level 1, The fourth leaf and its leaf sheath and leaf disease (with the parietal lobe as the first leaf Slice); grade 3, third leaf and its leaf sheath, leaf disease; grade 5, The second leaf and its leaf sheath and leaf disease; 7th grade, flag leaf and The following leaf sheaths and leaves are affected; 9 grades, the whole plant is ill, and it is dead early.
22.214.171.124 The formula for calculating the efficacy of the drug is as follows:
Condition index = . ; Control effect (%): -CK -P_T×10O
Where: CK is the disease index of the blank control area; PT is the medicineThe disease index of the drug treatment area.
2 Results and analysis
2.1 Taihe County test point drone ultra-low volume spray method to control riceSheath blight effect As can be seen from Table 1, the uniform application of 25% epoxiconazole suspension Applying drugs through a six-rotor plant protection drone at 420 g/hm Liquid 7.50 (Process A1), 11.25 (Process A2), 15.00 L/hm The control effect of A3) on rice sheath blight is 75.06%, 80.42%, 84.20%, the control effect is positive with the amount of liquid medicine applied. Guan; application of liquid medicine 450.00 L/hm through a knapsack electric sprayer.
The control effect was 81.83%, which was equivalent to the control effect of treatment A2. There was no significant difference, but it was significantly higher than the control effect of treatment A1, and significantly lower than the control effect of treatment A3. It shows that the drunken drug solution 15.00 L/hm has the best control effect, which is significantly higher than the control effect of 450 L/hm of the knapsack electric sprayer.
2.2 Nanchang County test point UAV ultra-low volume spray method to control rice liquid volume is also positively correlated; but drone spraying different liquid amount on riceThe effect of sheath blight The control effect of sheath blight is significantly lower than that of artificial electric spray application.It can be seen from Table 2 that the control effect of 40% copper copper epoxiconazole suspension is uniformly applied (86.72%); the drone is applied with three different drug liquids.Under the condition of 375 g/hm, there was also a significant difference in the control effect between the application of the plant protection drone. Description7.50, 11.25, 15.00 lMhm The control effect of rice sheath blight on the protection of drones spraying 40% copper copper epoxiconazole suspension agent to control rice grainIf it is 53.73%, 58.81%, and 69.44%, the control effect and the applied drug blight need to be further increased.
UAV ultra-low volume spray technology is currently the most advanced pesticide use technology. Ultra-low-volume spray can make the droplets reach 80-120m or even finer, save water and save time and labor when spraying; in the case of rice pest control, the traditional spray method requires a liquid volume of 225-450 kg/ Hm. With ultra-low volume spray, the required amount of liquid is only 4.5-7.5 IMhm. Therefore, the ultra-low-capacity spray technology of plant protection drone has the advantages of high spraying efficiency, low time consumption, less dosage, good application quality, etc. It is the development direction of the specialization and prevention of crop diseases and insect pests. In recent years, China has also reported relevant research on the application of ultra-low-capacity spray technology for drones to control crop diseases and insect pests. Ma Shufang carried out a field effect test on the application of plant protection drones to spray different agents to control wheat scab. The results showed that the application of pesticides by plant protection drones had a good control effect on wheat scab and greatly improved the control efficiency. . Wu Tianchang carried out the application of plant protection drone to control the reduction of rice planthoppers. The test results show that spraying 10% of the ethathrin suspending agent with multi-rotor drone can achieve ideally only 80% of the conventional dosage. Control effect. The results of this study showed that under the conditions of the same drug and the same dose, the effects of two test sites on the control of rice sheath blight were positively correlated with the amount of liquid sprayed, and the amount of liquid used was 15.00 L/ Hm has the best control effect. At the Taihe test site, under the condition of applying 420 g/hm of 25% epoxiconazole suspending agent, the spraying of different liquid amount of plant protection drone has better control effect on rice sheath blight, and the amount of liquid used in it Under the condition of 11.25 L/hm, it is equivalent to the effect of artificial electric spray. The control effect of the dosage of l5.00 lMhm is significantly higher than that of artificial electric spray. However, in the field investigation on the 10th day after the second application of the Taihe test site, it was found that a large number of fresh disease spots with low grades appeared in the rice plants in the plots of rice sheath blight by the plant-protected drone ultra-low-capacity spraying technology. This is not the case in a cell controlled by artificial electric spray. The reason may be related to the fact that the liquid medicine settled to the base of the rice plant during the spraying process of the plant protection drone, which is related to the weakening effect of reinfection in the late stage of rice sheath blight. At the test site in Nanchang County, the control effect of the ultra-low-capacity sprayed liquid through the plant protection drone was not satisfactory, and the maximum effective liquid volume (15.00 L/hm) was 69.44%, which was also significantly lower than the artificial The effect of electric spray is 86.22%. This may be related to the large wind force on the day of spraying. The drone has a chemical liquid drift during the spraying of the liquid, and the liquid is difficult to deposit and distribute to the base of the rice stem, thereby affecting the control effect. In recent years, the application of plant protection drones in the prevention and control of crop diseases and insect pests has become more and more extensive, but some problems have also appeared in the process of its promotion and application, thus affecting the prevention and control effects.
We have found that the use of plant protection drone ultra-low-capacity application to control rice sheath blight has the advantage of high control efficiency. However, due to the low capacity of the applied liquid, in order to ensure the control effect, it is recommended to add anti-flying additives to the pesticide to prevent it. The liquid moves, enhancing adsorption and osmosis. In the future, it is necessary to further carry out field trials of multiple crops for many years, continuously summarize the experience of field trials, and improve management methods in preparation for evaluating the control effect of plant protection drone ultra-low-capacity spraying technology on crop pests and diseases, and finally promote the technology. Popularization and application in crop pest control.