Study on the Control Effect of Plant Protection UAV Application on Main Diseases and Pests of Paddy
Abstract：In order to study the efficacy and application prospect of TH80-1 plant protection UAV in controlling main disease and insect pests, such as planthopper, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Pellicularia sasakii of rice at the middle and late stage, a field experiment was conducted with two different spraying methods, low flying plant protection UAV spraying at a small volume and power sprayers spraying at a large volume by manual work. The results showed that with the same reagent combination at rice late tillering stage, the control efficacy in 3, 7 and 14 d after TH80-1 UAV spraying pesticides were 70.83%, 81.23% and 91.04%, respectively on planthopper, and the leaf protection efficacy were 66.76%, 69.32% and 87.33%, respectively on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée. The control efficacy in 7 and 14 d after TH80-1 UAV spraying agricultural chemicals were 76.62% and 91.22%, respectively on Pellicularia sasakii. The control effects were remarkable on main diseases and insect pests of rice at the middle and late stage, and were superior to the effects of spraying agricultural chemicals with traditional sprayers by manual work.
Rice is one of the main food crops in China, with a wide planting area. There are many types of pests and diseases, especially in the middle and late stages of rice pests and diseases, on rice
The impact of production is large . Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
Guenee), rice planthopper is the main pest in the middle and late rice, rice leaf rolling Foraging the middle leaves of rice, causing the leafhoppers to be smashed, and the mites are white and dry.
When the damage is serious, the whole paddy field is full of white leaves; the rice planthopper is adult and if The worm clusters at the base of the rice to suck the juice, causing a large area to wear when severe Pearicularia (Pellicularia sasakii) is the middle and late rice The main disease, the disease occurs rapidly under high temperature and high humidity conditions, strict
When heavy, rice can not be normally headed, forming a “card neck” [2-3]. Rice In the middle and late growth stages, the leaves are flourishing, and the pests and diseases occur seriously.
Medicine, liquid medicine is difficult to reach the middle and lower parts of rice, resulting in poor control effect, even To the disaster of pests and diseases, seriously affecting production. At the same time causing artificial field operations Difficult to walk, labor intensity , using large-capacity spraying not only waves
Pesticides also cause serious harm to pesticides and the ecological environment , And it is difficult to carry out timely and effective prevention and control of fulminating pests and diseases, resulting in Serious loss.
In recent years, plant protection drones using unmanned helicopters to spray pesticides are fast Rapid development,
Protected drones, compared with traditional artificial sprayers, plant protection drones It has the characteristics of high work efficiency, low amount of sprayed liquid, and low labor intensity.
It is a new type of specialized large-scale prevention and control of rice pests and diseases Plant protection drugs . However, plant protection drones as a new drug application technology
Surgery, in the process of pest control, also subject to fog uniformity, fog droplets A series of conditions such as diameter, droplet deposition density, meteorological environment, etc.
It is decided whether the field control effect has reached the prevention and control standards. Qin Weicai et al  The distribution of droplets in corn canopy was studied by spraying parameters of unmanned helicopters.
Effect, established spray effect and deposition when the working height is 7 m The best results. Gao Yuanyuan et al.  studied the small-scale drone spraying at low altitude.
Distribution of droplets in wheat field and its control effect on wheat midge Af-811 has an effect on the control of wheat midge in ultra-low volume spray It is 86.1%. However, the effectiveness of plant protection drones in controlling rice pests and diseases in the field There are still few reports, for this purpose, TH80-1 plant protection drone application Ways to control the effects of pests and diseases in the middle and late stages of rice, with a view to plant protection Technical support is provided for drone field application operations.
1 Materials and methods
Test agent: 20% chlorantraniliprole suspending agent (US Du
State company); 20% imidacloprid solution (Shandong joint pesticide chemical industry Co., Ltd.); 27.8% thiofuran hexaconazole suspension (Zhejiang Bo Shida Crop Technology Co., Ltd.); Huainte special high-efficiency vegetable oil additives (US National Oro Agri International Co., Ltd.).
Spraying equipment: TH80-1 plant protection drone (Hunan Dafang Plant Protection Co., Ltd., Changsha Tuhang Agricultural Development Co., Ltd.), nozzle model: Centrifugal rotary nozzle with a speed of 9 600 r/min and average droplet size 88.60 μm; 3WBD-16HBA knapsack sprayer (Shandong Guardian),
Nozzle model: hydraulic tangential inlet double nozzle, d=1.6 mm, average The droplet size is 176.67 μm.
Rice and Pests: The rice variety is “Xiangzao 45”, 4
Spreading on the 12th of the month, the density of throwing plants is 21,000 蔸 / 667 m2, 9 to 100,000
Plant basic seedlings / 667m2. Pests: rice leaf roller, rice planthopper; disease:
Rice sheath blight.
1.2.1 Test setup The test was conducted at Sangang Village, Gupei Town, Miluo City, Hunan Province. In 10 groups of rice fields, the test area is 1.2 hm2, which is a regular rectangle.
Easy drainage and irrigation, medium fertility, organic matter content of 2.3%, pH value of 5.9, There are no buildings and poles around the field. Divide the field into 3 small Zone, middle isolation belt, plant protection drone application area 0.5 hm2, person The spray area is 0.5 hm2, and the blank control area and the isolation zone are 0.2 hm2. Plant protection drone application: TH80-1 plant protection drone, flight Speed 3 m/s, flight altitude (from the canopy) 1 m spray width: late splitting
4 m, flow rate (spray motor voltage) 9.6 V (controlled at 0.4~0.6 L/
Min liquid); the amount of application liquid is 7.5 L/hm2.
Artificial spray: 3WBD-16HBA knapsack electric sprayer spray
Fog, the nozzle is a double fan nozzle, the nozzle flow: 1 L / min, working pressure The force is 0.2~0.4×106 pa, the artificial walking speed is 0.6 m/s, the amount of liquid medicine
480.0 L/hm2 1.2.2 Formulations Spraying time June 15, 2014 8:00 am 00~9:00, fine weather, temperature 6.3 °C, relative humidity 82%, wind speed 0.8 m/s.
1.2.3 Survey method Rice planthopper: Parallel multi-point skip sampling method The number of insect populations before and after application in each plot was investigated at 3, 7 and 14 days after application. Maintain a 5 cm shallow water layer in the field and select 10 for each parallel jump Point, 2 clumps per point, shaking or tapping the rice bush, counting the water drift between the rice bushes The number of floating cornices. Do not distinguish between rice planthopper species and insect age, calculate total rice fly Control effect. Investigation and documentation of rice planthoppers Guidelines . The control effect is calculated according to the formula: Insect mortality rate (%) = (number of live insects before application – live after application Number of insects) / Number of live insects before application × 100 Control effect (%) = (infestation area insect population decline rate – control area Insect mortality rate) / (100 – control area insect population reduction rate) × 100
Rice leaf roller: each cell adopts parallel jump sampling method
50 clumps, surveyed in each plot before application, 3, 7 d and 14 d after application Number of mouth bases; count the total number of leaves during the survey, take all the insects, bring back Laboratory tests record the number of residual live insects. Investigation and record of rice leaf roller Refer to the pesticide field efficacy test . Leaf rolling rate (%) = number of surveyed leaves / total number of leaves investigated × 100; Control effect (%) = (blank area leaf rate – after treatment area Leaf rolling rate / blank area leaf rate × 100 Insecticidal effect (%) = (treatment area insect population reduction rate – blank area Insect mortality rate) / (100 – blank area insect population decline rate) control area live Number of insects × 100 Rice sheath blight: using a diagonal 5-point sampling method, select 5 Point, 5 plexes per point, investigate the application of each plot before and after application 7, 14 d incidence. The incidence is classified as follows. Level 0: The whole plant is disease free; Grade 1: The disease of the 4th leaf blade and its leaf sheaths and leaves (with the flag leaf For the first leaf); Grade 3: the third leaf and its leaf sheaths and leaves below
Onset; Grade 5: onset of leaf sheath and leaf of the second leaf and below; Grade 7: Flag leaf and its leaf sheaths and leaves are affected; Grade 9: Whole plant disease, Get dying early.
Disease index = Σ (number of diseases at all levels × corresponding disease number) (/ tune Check the total number of plants × 9) × 100 Control effect (%) = [(Control area disease index – treatment area disease Information index) / Control area disease index] × 100
1.2.4 Statistical Analysis of Data Data in Excel 2003 and IBM SPSS
Statistics 19 software for statistical analysis. Field data by mean ±Standard error indicates that Duncan’s new complex range analysis method makes significant difference Sexual analysis.
2 Results and analysis
After 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after application, no drug application was found. The normal growth of rice has adverse effects, indicating that TH80-1 plant protection is unmanned Low-concentration spray of high-concentration liquid is safe for rice growth.
2.2 Control effect
2.2.1 Control effect of rice planthoppers Spraying with artificial backpack sprayer
20% imidacloprid 300 mL/hm2, liquid medicine volume 480.0 L, control rice fly the loss rate of insects at 3, 7 and 14 days after application was 86.91%, 94.47%, 94.56%; TH80-1 plant protection drone application rate is 7.5 L, At 3, 7 and 14 days after application, the population loss rate was 85.10%,
94.91%, 96.60% (Table 2), the comparison shows that artificial spray control rice The quick-acting insecticidal effect of the planthopper is similar to that of the plant protection drone. From the whole From the perspective of control effect, after 14 days of application, the plant protection drone application to the control of the planthopper The effect is 91.04%, and the artificial spray control effect is 85.68%. Achieve better control effect, but plant protection drone application than artificial spray 5.36 percentage points higher.
2.2.2 Control effect of rice leaf roller, plant protection drone and artificial spray The spray was sprayed with 23.5 % chlorantraniliprole 10 mL/hm2, and the amount of liquid was 1 : 64, the control effect of controlling rice leaf roller is shown in Table 3, the results tableMing, 3,7,14 d after application, plant protection drones to prevent rice leaf curling
The insect effect was lower than artificial spray 5.31, 1.53, 0.88 percentage points, respectively.
But as time goes by, the insecticidal effect is getting closer. From the effect of leaf protection,
The leaf protection effect of TH80-1 plant protection drone was 87.33% after 14 days of application.
1.56 percentage points higher than artificial spray. Overall two methods of prevention The effect is remarkable, the artificial spray of insecticidal effect is higher than that of the plant protection drone.
The application of leaf protection effect plant protection drone is better than artificial spray, the overall control effect
The plant protection drone is better than the artificial spray.
2.2.3 Control effect of rice sheath blight Plant protection drone and artificial spray Spraying 27.8% thiafur·hexazol to control rice with fog at 120 mL/hm2 The effect of sheath blight is shown in Table 4. The control effects of both spray methods are achieved.
More than 87.39%, the control effect is remarkable. Plant protection for 14 days after application The control effect of machine application is 92.22%, which is 3.21 higher than artificial spray percentage point.
2.3 Determination of yield
After the harvest on July 16th, the production of the plant protection drone area, artificial defense The yields of the treatment area and the blank control area were 6,780, 6,570, and 5,415 kg/Hm2, compared with the blank area, the plant protection drone area increased by 25.2%. Artificial control increased production by 21.3%, the effect of increasing production was significant, and plant protection drone defense The district is 3.9 percentage points higher than the artificial control zone.
3 Summary and discussion
Test using the same medication under the same operating conditions Fang, using TH80-1 plant protection drone ultra low volume spray and 3WBD-
16HBA electric sprayer large capacity artificial spray two different application Ways to the mid-late stage of early rice, rice planthopper, rice leaf roller and stalk The disease is prevented. By evaluating and analyzing the control effect, the results Shows the late stage of rice tillering, plant protection drone ultra low volume spray on rice Safety, the main pests and diseases of rice in the late tillering stage, rice planthopper, rice leaf roller The overall control effect of rice and rice sheath blight was 91.6%, and the control effect was remarkable. Increased production by 25.2%, control effect and yield increase are better than traditional large capacity
Artificial spray. Plant protection drone has high working efficiency, good control effect and labor Low strength, safe for crops, especially for mid-late disease The pest control effect is remarkable, and it can completely solve the pest control in the middle and late stages of rice Avoid problems such as difficulty in treatment or delay in prevention and treatment, so as to avoid rice production Caused serious damage. At the same time, with the transfer of rural land, agricultural cooperatives, The establishment of family farms, plant protection drones will gradually become universal, The development of civilians and the promotion and application in agricultural production.