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What Is Autopilot

autopilot

What is autopilot

Autopilot is an adjustment device that automatically controls the trajectory of an aircraft according to technical requirements. Its role is mainly to maintain the attitude of the aircraft and assist the pilot in maneuvering the aircraft. It consists of sensitive components, computers and servos. When the aircraft deviates from the original attitude, the sensing element detects the change, the computer calculates the correction rudder offset, and the servo mechanism controls the rudder surface to the desired position.


Introduction

Autopilot is a device that automatically controls the aircraft according to certain technical requirements. The use on manned aircraft is to reduce the burden on the pilot and make the aircraft automatically fly in a certain attitude, heading, altitude and Mach number. On the missile, it plays the role of stabilizing the missile attitude, so it is called the missile attitude control system. It is cross-linked with the guidance device on the missile or on the ground to form a missile guidance and control system to achieve stability and control functions.


In modern military science, autopilots are used in drones because they can replace piloted aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles such as unmanned fixed-wing aircraft and unmanned helicopters. The GPS / INS integrated navigation system using MEMS inertial devices and global positioning systems, the use of advanced control algorithms such as adaptive and neural networks, and its small size and light integration have all become the hallmarks of modern autopilots.


principle

The autopilot pilots the aircraft by mimicking the actions of the pilot. It consists of sensitive components, computers and servos. When some kind of disturbance causes the aircraft to deviate from the original attitude, the sensitive element (such as a gyroscope) detects the change in attitude; the computer calculates the required correction of the rudder offset; the servo mechanism (or servo) controls the rudder surface to the required position . The autopilot and the aircraft form a feedback loop to ensure stable flight of the aircraft.

classification

By energy form

Is divided into pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical or a combination of these types. Modern supersonic aircraft are often equipped with electrical (or electronic) —hydraulic autopilots. Pneumatic servos are mainly used in missiles.

By object

Divided into aircraft autopilot and missile autopilot. Most aircraft autopilots have sensitive elements that detect the attitude angle of the aircraft, which can stabilize the attitude angle of the aircraft. In order to improve the stability of this autopilot, a rate gyroscope can be used together

According to the regulation

The regulation law (ie, mathematical model) of the autopilot indicates the number relationship between the output of the servo mechanism and the parameter being adjusted. Aircraft autopilots are divided into proportional autopilots and integral autopilots according to the adjustment rules. It has a simple structure and is widely used, but static errors will occur under the action of interference.

autopilot

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